Plant Grafting Technique

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Introduction to plant grafting technique

Grafting is a technique of inserting a part of one plant into another plant in such a way that the two will unite and continue their growth. The top part of new plant looses its own root system and unites with another plant that supports and supplies its nutritional requirements. The upper part of the union is known as scion or graft and the lower part is the root stock or stock. Grafting is practised between closely related species. Each part of the plant retains its own characteristic features, as there will not be any interchange of genetic material. Thus, one mango trunk system can carry a number of different varieties of mangoes!

Plant Grafting Technique

Grafting technique will be successful only when the union of the scion and root stock occurs through formation of new tissues. For successful union, vascular tissues of scion and stock should touch each other. There should be enough moisture and optimum temperature  for formation of new tissues. Successful grafting cannot take place between unrelated plants. Plants in which grafting is done more routinely are mango, apple, guava etc.

At least four methods of grafting technique are in practice. They are approach grafting, cleft grafting, tongue grafting and bud grafting. 

Approach grafting : This is largely practised for grafting sapota, mango and guava. In this method, both the stock and scion remain rooted. The stock is grown in a pot. A branch of scion of the same thickness as the stock is bent towards the stock and a small slice is cut off from its stem. A similar slice is cut off in the stock.  The two cut surfaces of the stems are brought in contcact and are held firmly in position by tape. The two steps get united in course of time. Then the top of the stock and the base of the scion are later cut off. The scion of a desired variety is allowed to grow on the root stock of different variety. This can be applied in all those plants where grafting is possible.

Plant Grafting Technique

Tongue grafting : This method is used on stocks that are relatively small. Top of the stock is cut diagonally and in an upward direction. Scion is cut diagonally and downward direction. Cut surfaces of both should be smooth. Uneven and wavy surfaces revent proper contact and union. A second cut is given from above, downwards, which forms the tongue. This is done in a manner that the notch or tongue of the scion closely fits with that of stock. Later, it is wrapped and tied by twine and covered with a waxed tape.

Plant Grafting Technique

Bud grafting : This method of grafting is used for propagating apple, orange, rose and other ornamental plants . A 'T' - shaped incision is made on the bark of the stock. The bark is made loose neither side of vertical cut. A single bud of the scion with a little wood is placed in the incision below the bark and held in position by applying tape. The bud draws water and mineral salts from the stock. As it grows, the synthesis its own food. The buds of the stock will be  removed so that they may not compete with the grafted bud. The bud, when cut, resembles a shield in shape. The cut resembles the letter 'T'. Active cells under the bud, and the exposed surface of the stock come together.

Cleft grafting : With a sharp knife, a stem without bends and side branches is cut across. The end of the stub is split like a 'V' to insert scion. Scions are prepared by cutting the end in a wedge shape with the help of a sharp knife. Two or three good buds of the scion above the stock are ensured. Similarly many slits are made towards outside of a large stock. In each slit only one scion is inserted. The point of union is held in position and a waxed tape is put around the junction.


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